Representative Dissertations

Representative Ph.D. in Architecture Dissertation Abstracts (1996-2013)

Jaya Mukhopadhyay – 2013: Prof. Jeff Haberl
An Analysis of Energy Consumption in Grocery Stores in a Hot and Humid Climate

Francisco Farias - 2013: Prof. Mark Clayton
Contemporary Strategies for Sustainable Design

Kiyoung Son - 2012: Prof. Vallie Miranda, Prof. Paul Woods
Regression Model Predicting Appraised Unit Value of Land in San Francisco County from Number of and Distance to Public Transit Stops using GIS

Hyojin Kim - 2012: Prof. Jeff Haberl
Methodology for Rating a Building's Overall Performance based on the ASHRAE/CIBSE/USGBC Performance Measurement Protocols for Commercial Buildings

Bradley Angell - 2012: Prof. Robert Warden
Urban-Architectural Design After Exile: Communities in Search of a Minor Architecture

Xiaodong Xuan - 2012: Prof. Mardelle Shepley
Exploring the Effectiveness of LEED Certification in LEED Certified Healthcare Settings in Climate Zone 2 and 3

Chamila Subasinghe - 2011: Prof. Mark Clayton, Prof. Eugen Wagner
Rebuilding for Sustainability: Spatial Analysis of Bolivar Peninsula after Hurricane Ike

Qing Xing - 2011: Prof. Wei Yan, Prof. Ergun Akleman
Graph Rotation Systems for Physical Construction of Large Structures

Serra Akboy - 2011: Prof. Robert Warden
The HABS Culture of Documentation with an Analysis of Drawing and Technology

Saiful Islam - 2011: Prof. Pill Tabb
A Study on Zoning Regulations' Impact on Thermal Comfort Conditions in Non-conditioned Apartment Buildings in Dhaka City

Samira Pasha - 2011: Prof. Mardelle Shepley
Usability of Outdoor Spaces in Children's Hospitals

Pasquale De Paola - 2011: Prof. Frances Downing
A Question of Method: Architettura Razionale and the XV Milan Triennale of 1973

Edelmiro Escamilla - 2011: Prof. Anat Geva, Prof. James Smith
Investigation of Project Management Planning Practices for Renovation of Historical Buildings in Urban Contexts Located in Texas

Laura Prestwood - 2010: Prof. Mardelle Shepley
Architectural Design Factors Of Domestic Violence Shelters That Affect Outcomes For Female Domestic Violence Victims: A Naturalistic Inquiry To Establish Grounded Theory For Future Research

Ahmet Ugursal - 2010: Prof. Charles Culp
Thermal Comfort under Transient Metabolic and Dynamic Localized Airflow Conditions Combined with Neutral and Warm Ambient Temperatures

Alethea Bair - 2009: Prof. Don House 
Optimization of single and layered surface texturing

Carols Arias Reimers - 2009: Prof. Robin Abrams, Prof. Andrew Seidel 
Housing diversity and consolidation in low income Colonias patterns of house form and household arrangements in Colonias of the US

Craig Anz - 2009: Prof. Frances Downing 
Critical Environmentalism - Towards An Epistemic Framework For Architecture

Gali Zilbershtein - 2009: Prof. Andrew Seidel 
Architecture in the area of terror: design and perception of security of two societies

Mini Malhotra - 2009: Prof. Jeff Haberl 
An Analysis of off-grid, off-pipe Housing in Six U.S. Climates

Ozan Ozener - 2009: Prof. Mark Clayton 
Studio Education for Integrated Practice Using Building Information Modeling

Tom McPeek - 2009: Prof. Robert Johnson 
Collaborative design pedagogy: a naturalistic inquiry of architectural education

Young Jun Park - 2009: Prof. Valerian Miranda, Prof. Paul Woods 
Predicting the Unit Appraisal Value of the Unimproved and Private Land in the City of Houston by LEED Sustainable Site Credits

Zhe Wang - 2009: Prof. Mardelle Shepley, Prof. Susan Rodiek 
Nearby Outdoor Environmental Support of Older Adults' Yard

Zhipeng Lu - 2009: Prof. Mardelle Shepley 
Design for the frail old: environmental and perceptual influences on corridor walking behaviors of assisted living residents

Althea G. Arnold - 2008: Prof. Nancy Holland, Prof. Liliana Beltran 
Development of a Method for Recording Energy Costs and Uses During the Construction Process

Arsenio Rodrigues - 2008: Prof. Phillip Tabb 
The sacred in architecture: A study of the presence and quality of place-making patterns in sacred and secular buildings

Carlos Nome - 2008: Prof. Robert Johnson 
Pre-Programming: Evaluation of Workspace Types and Workspace Alternatives in Educational Settings

Irina Solovyova - 2008: Prof. Frances Downing 
The Role Of The Autobiographical Experiences With Emotional Significance of an Architect in Design Conjecturing

Xuemei Zhu - 2008: Prof. Robin Abrams Prof. Chanam Lee 
Community Environments And Walking-To-School Behaviors: Multi-Level Correlates and Underlying Disparities

Jin Gyu Park - 2007: Prof. Mardelle Shepley 
Environmental Color for Pediatric Patient Room Design

Narongpon Laiprakobsup - 2007: Prof. Frances Downing 
The Emergence of The Essence

Sopa Visitsak - 2007: Prof. Jeff Haberl 
An Evaluation of the Bioclimatic Chart for choosing Design Strategies for a Thermostatically - Controlled Residence in selected Climates

You Kyoung Ahn - 2007: Prof. Anat Geva 
Adaptive Reuse of Abandoned Historic Churches: Building Type and Public perception

Cassandrea Hager - 2005: Prof. John Bryant 
Developing Standards for Undergraduate University construction Education Internship Programs

Kwanchai Roachanakana - 2005: Prof. Robert Johnson, Prof. John Nichols 
A Case Study of Cost Overruns in a Thai Condominium Project

Rima Al Ajlouni - 2005: Prof. Robert Warden 
Development and Evaluation of a Digital Tool for Virtual Reconstruction of Historic Islamic Geometric Patterns

Sakkara Rasisuttha - 2005: Prof. Jeff Haberl 
An Investigation of Methods for Reducing the Use of Non-renewable Energy Resources for Housing in Thailand

Samer Al Ratrout - 2005: Prof. Robert Warden 
Feasibility Study of Using Optical Moire Interferometry Technique for Fine-grain Surface Relief in Heritage Recording

Tanya Komas - 2005: Prof. David Woodcock 
Historic Building Documentation in the United States, 1933-2000: The Historic American Building Survey, A Case Study

Sakkara Rasisuttha - 2005: Prof. Jeff Haberl 
An Inverstigation of Methods for Reducing the Use of Non-renewable Energy Rescources for Housing in Thailand

Rima Al Ajlouni - 2005: Prof. Robert Warden 
Development and Evaluation of a Digital Tool for Vertual Reconstruction of Historic Islamic Geometric Patterns

Cassandrea Hager - 2005: Prof. John Bryant 
Developing Standards for Undergraduate University construction Education Internship Programs

Tanya Komas - 2005: Prof. David Woodcock 
Historic Building Documentation in The United States, 1933-2000: The Historic American Building Survey, A Case Study

Marie-AndrAe Fournier - 1999 
Impact of a Family-Centered-Care Approach on the Design of Neonatal Intensive Care Units

Suk Bong Kim - 1998 
The Analysis of Factors Affecting Energy Consumption of Duplex Residences in College Station, Texas

In-Kon Kim - 1997 
Subjective Responses to Daylight, Sunlight, and View in College Classrooms with Windows

Wonpi Kim - 1997 
Effects of Dwelling Floor Level on Factors Related to Residential Satisfaction and Home Environment in High-Rise Apartment Buildings

Grady Eric Connell - 1996 
The Design Practices of Architects in Relation to the Models of Design: Analysis-Synthesis and Conjecture-Analysis

Mary S. McCormick - 1996 
How to Get There from Here: Way-Finding in Complex Environments

Michael Dean Nobe - 1996 
Decision Support for Real Estate Development Cost Estimating

Julie S. Rogers - 1996 
The Concept of Framing and Its Role in Teacher-Student Negotiations during Desk Critiques in the Architectural Design Studio

Karen Cordes Spence - 1996 
Theorizing in Architecture: An Examination of the Texts of Frampton, Rossi, and Lang

Rami Farouk Daher - 1995 
Towards a Comprehensive Approach for the Identification, Evaluation, and Management of Historical and Cultural Resources in Jordan: "Paradigm Shift in Conservation Ideology

Midori Kitagawa De Leon - 1993 
Boolean operations on polygon meshes

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Author: Jaya Mukhopadhyay
Publication date: 2013
Title: An Analysis of Energy Consumption in Grocery Stores in a Hot and Humid Climate
Abstract: The intent of this study was to investigate the efficient use of energy by developing an energy efficient grocery store combined with cogeneration. This study demonstrated the potential to reduce the energy use in buildings, by implementing a decentralized source of energy generation that allowed for the use of a portion of the energy generated to be shared across building boundaries. This study considered a high energy use building such as a grocery store to be a part of a residential community, which could potentially participate in the sharing of energy across building boundaries. To better utilize energy resources the study proposed the implementation of a cogeneration facility to supply energy primarily to the store. Surplus energy generated by this cogeneration system was then shared with the requirements of the surrounding residential community. Finally, in order to better account for energy consumption of these buildings both site and source energy was considered. The study focused on hot and humid climates. This study was presented in two parts: Analyzing conventional grocery store systems to determine the maximum savings possible; and examining the option of co-generation systems to provide power to grocery stores and a portion of the community in order to reduce source energy use for the grocery store and a portion of the surrounding community. Source energy savings were in the range of 47% to 54% depending on the energy efficiency measures selected and the cogeneration configuration determined in the grocery store. Economic payback periods in the range of 4 to 7 years (time until zero net present value) were observed. The selection of appropriate options was narrowed down to two options that utilized more thermal energy within the boundaries of the store and generated more amount of surplus energy to be absorbed by the neighboring residential buildings.
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Author: Francisco Farias
Publication date: 2013
Title: Contemporary Strategies for Sustainable Design
Abstract: This exploratory research examined the degree of adoption and impact of the concepts of Building Information Model (BIM), Integrated Project Delivery (IPD), Integrated Design Process (IDP) and Building Energy Simulation (BES) on the design processes of advanced architectural firms when executing sustainable design. Six offices identified by the press for a strong commitment to sustainable design and influence in the design of high performance buildings were selected as cases. In semi-standardized interviews, these firms presented their perceptions of the influence of BIM, BES, and IPD/IDP. The results show that a generalization of sustainable design processes is possible. A design process for sustainability (DEPROSU) model was created by collecting best practices from data gathered from the interviews and the critical literature review. Secondary contributions show that BIM, IDP/IPD and BES have a synergistic effect in sustainable design methods, and that the human resource profile from these firms has evolved towards multi-skilled professionals knowledgeable in BES, BIM, parametric design, sustainability and construction processes. This research provides evidence of commonalities found in the design processes of the selected firms. These commonalities, which have been represented in the DEPROSU model, can potentially be validated as protocols or standards for sustainable design, providing architectural design practices with concrete patterns for improvement and or validation of their design methods.
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Author: Kiyoung Son
Publication date: 2012
Title: Regression Model Predicting Appraised Unit Value of Land in San Francisco County from Number of and Distance to Public Transit Stops using GIS
Abstract: The objective of this study is to develop a quantifying model that predicts the appraised unit value of parcels in San Francisco County based on number of LEED-NC Public Transportation Access (PTA) qualified bus, light rail and commuter rail stops, distance to closest bus, light rail and commuter rail stops, zoning class and parcel size. As a population of interest, San Francisco County was chosen since it is known as a region having well-organized transportation systems including bus, light rail and commuter rail systems. According to the correlation results, for mixed zone, an appraised unit value increases as the number of LEED qualified transit stops increases (bus, light rail, and commuter rail). In addition, the appraised unit value increases as the distance to LEED qualified bus stops light rail stops decreases. For residential zone, the appraised unit value increases as the number of LEED qualified bus and light rail stations increases. Furthermore, the appraised unit value increases as the distance to LEED qualified bus stops decreases. When it comes to the predictive regression model for mixed zone, the adjusted R-square of the transformed model was 0.713, which indicates that 71.3 percent variability in transformed unit value of parcels could be explained by these variables. In addition, for the predictive model of residential zone, the adjusted R-square for the model was 0.622 thus the independent variables together accounted for 62.2 percent variability in the transformed unit value of parcels. The predicting models for mixed and residential zones were significant that suggests that the components of LEED-NC PTA criteria, number and distance from parcels, this could affect land development strategies. In addition, an appraised unit value of parcels in San Francisco County can be estimated by using the predictive models developed in this study. Therefore, the findings of this study could encourage real-estate developers to site their projects according to the LEED-NC PTA criteria.
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Author: Hyojin Kim
Publication date: 2012
Title: Methodology for Rating a Building's Overall Performance based on the ASHRAE/CIBSE/USGBC Performance Measurement Protocols for Commercial Buildings
Abstract: This study developed and applied a field test to evaluate the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)/Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE)/United States Green Building Council (USGBC) Performance Measurement Protocols (PMP) for Commercial Buildings in a case-study office building in central Texas. As the first integrated protocol on building performance measurement, the ASHRAE PMP accomplished its goal of providing the standardized protocols for measuring and comparing the overall performance of a building, including energy, water, thermal comfort, Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), lighting, and acoustics. However, several areas for improvement were identified such as conflicting results from different procedures or benchmarks provided in the ASHRAE PMP; limited guidelines for performing the measurements; lack of detailed modeling techniques, graphical indices, and clear benchmarks; and some practical issues (i.e., high cost requirements and time-intensive procedures). All these observations are listed as the forty issues, including thirteen for energy, five for water, and twenty-two for Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ). Recommendations were developed for each issue identified. For the selected high-priority issues, twelve new or modified approaches were proposed and then evaluated against the existing procedures in the ASHRAE PMP. Of these twelve new or modified approaches, the following are the most significant developments: a more accurate monthly energy use regression model including occupancy; a monthly water use regression model for a weather-normalized comparison of measured water performance; a method how to use a vertical temperature profile to evaluate room air circulation; a method how to use LCeq – LAeq difference as a low-cost alternative to estimate low frequency noise annoyance; a statistical decomposition method of time-varying distribution of indices; and a real-time wireless IEQ monitoring system for the continuous IEQ measurements. The application of the forty recommendations and the twelve new or modified approaches developed in this study to the ASHRAE PMP is expected to improve the applicability of the ASHRAE PMP, which aligns the overall purpose of this study. Finally, this study developed a new single figure-of-merit rating system based on the ASHRAE PMP procedures. The developed rating system is expected to improve the usability of the protocols.
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Author: Bradley Angell
Publication date: 2012
Title: Urban-Architectural Design After Exile: Communities in Search of a Minor Architecture
Abstract: This dissertation analogically applies a framework of minor literary analysis to uniquely political units of the built environment. As urbanism is conventionally understood to be executed per the greatest utility of established communal objectives, an underlying politicization is inherent as such forms must adhere to dominant norms of development which potentially marginalize those who practice cultural methods outside normative standards. Employing a uniquely architectural method of environmental justice advocacy, select communities facing disenfranchisement react by self-producing urban-architectural forms ("UAFs") to protect threatened cultural values from marginalization. Installed to subvert the existing power dynamic, such UAFs are potential exhibitions of minor architecture. Adopting the analytical standards established by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari for evaluating Franz Kafka's literature, this paper tests six UAFs to discover if a minor architecture is possible under contemporary globalization. Employing an enumerated framework of minor production characteristics, an interpretive-historical analysis is the primary method of judgment regarding each unit's execution of minor architecture. Two secondary tests are undertaken to validate the primary findings, the first of which is a physio-logical evaluation that characterizes and measures urban resource utility as per collective minority aims. Second, a newspaper correlation test is undertaken so as to judge the enunciative effectiveness of each community per issues of minority politics. Of the six cases examined, two have their source in cinema including "Bartertown" of MAD MAX BEYOND THUNDERDOME (1985) and the "House on Paper Street" of FIGHT CLUB (1999). The four remaining cases include the Tibetan Government-in-Exile of Dharamsala, India; Student Bonfire of Robertson County, Texas; Isla Vista Recreation & Park District of Santa Barbara County, California; and the Emergent Cannabis Community of Arcata, California. Of all the cases studied, only the Tibetan Government-in-Exile met both the conditions of minor architecture and was validated in terms of practiced urban resource use as well as effective representation in mainstream newsprint. Both cinematic cases failed as minor productions of the built environment. Although they did not find full validation, the three remaining real-world UAFs each were found on a course of minor architectural expression at varying stages of execution.
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Author: Xiaodong Xuan
Publication date: 2012
Title: Exploring the Effectiveness of LEED Certification in LEED Certified Healthcare Settings in Climate Zone 2 and 3
Abstract: Most LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified buildings are commercial office buildings and multi-use buildings. As of October 2009, 35,000 projects were registered in the LEED system, "comprising over 4.5 billion square feet of construction space in all 50 states and 91 countries." However, as of April 30, 2009, only 43 healthcare projects had achieved LEED certification. Currently, most studies focus on the economic benefits and energy consumption of LEED certified buildings, rather than human factors. A small gain in productivity can result in a heftier financial gain. Even modest improvements in productivity and absenteeism can substantially outweigh the energy cost. This study surveyed 164 staff in the two healthcare settings for case study, and 146 staff in the six LEED certified healthcare settings for the main study in climate zone 2 and 3. Telephone interviews with the six facility managers were used to verify the survey results and further examine the healthcare facilities? performance and the effectiveness of the LEED strategies from facility managers' perspectives. Independent t-test was used to examine the difference between the LEED and Non-LEED hospitals in one healthcare system and results showed that building performance were rated higher by staff in LEED certified hospital than Non-LEED hospital. MANOVA was conducted to compare the staff's ratings between Silver and Gold certification levels, male and female, and also explore the possibility of interaction effect. Multilevel regression modeling was used to test how the building performance variables affect the overall comfort and productivity. Study results showed that staff in the Gold certified hospital had significant higher ratings in most the performance variables. Gold certified healthcare settings were significant better in rated building overall, overall comfort and controllability than Silver certified healthcare settings. And males felt more comfortable in temperature than females in healthcare facilities. Regarding the overall comfort and productivity, building design, efficiency of the space use, temperature comfort and controllability over building system were significant predictors for staff overall comfort; and lighting comfort, temperature comfort and controllability over building system had significant positive relationship with perceived productivity. LEED certified healthcare settings appear to have a good environment and building performance for occupants. Controllability, lighting, temperature, use of space, building design were important factors in staff comfort and productivity.
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Author: Chamila Subasinghe
Publication date: 2011
Title: Rebuilding for Sustainability: Spatial Analysis of Bolivar Peninsula after Hurricane Ike
Abstract: Recurring extreme events of nature challenge disaster-prone settlements in complex ways. Devastating property damages are one of the tests of survival for such settlements in both economic and social terms. It also provides unique opportunities to rethink the environment cleared by massive natural disasters. However, rebuilding for long-term resiliency is one of the least investigated areas, particularly when employing tacit knowledge in the sustainable recovery process. This study examines the post-disaster rebuilding process in spatial terms for Bolivar Peninsula in the aftermath of Hurricane Ike. It further investigates the nexus between connectivity among open space networks to various levels of surge damage among Bolivar spontaneous settlements. The study uses syntactical methods to measure axial connectivity of the Bolivar Peninsula access grid and one-way Analysis of Variance to interpret the way connectivity varies along the no damage to destroyed damage scale. In addition, the permeability rubric analyzes the elevation characteristics of houses that demonstrated higher probabilities of survival through a logistic regression. The conclusions are based on two basic premises. Local knowledge demands an indefinite time to be adapted and mobilized because of the increasing intensity of natural disasters. In addition, the high frequency of disaster events significantly challenges the versatility of local coping and survival strategies. The results reveal that the connectivity of the access grid has an inversely proportional relationship with various damage levels, particularly for no damage and destroyed. Furthermore, out of a number of resiliency characteristics listed in the literature, only ground elevation and ground enclosure demonstrated probability significances for survival. Potentially, the results of this research could support three significant outcomes pertaining to sustainable disaster recovery: preserving place character, social justice among affected groups, and promoting rapid recovery.
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Author: Qing Xing
Publication date: 2011
Title: Graph Rotation Systems for Physical Construction of Large Structures
Abstract: In this dissertation, I present an approach for physical construction of large structures. The approach is based on the graph rotation system framework. I propose two kinds of physical structures to represent the shape of design models. I have developed techniques to generate developable panels from any input polygonal mesh, which can be easily assembled to get the shape of the input polygonal mesh. The first structure is called plain woven structures. I have developed the ?projection method? to convert mathematical weaving cycles on any given polygonal mesh to developable strip panels. The width of weaving strips varies so that the surface of the input model can be covered almost completely. When these strip panels are assembled together, resulting shape resembles to a weaving in 3-space. The second structure is called band decomposition structures. I have developed a method to convert any given polygonal mesh into star-like developable elements, which we call vertex panels. Assembling vertex panels results in band decomposition structures. These band decomposition structures correspond to 2D-thickening of graphs embedded on surfaces. These band decompositions are contractible to their original graph. In a 2D-thickening, each vertex thickens to a polygon and each edge thickens to a band. Within the resulting band decomposition, each polygon corresponds to a vertex and each band corresponds to an edge that connects two vertex polygons. Since the approach is based on graph rotation system framework, the two structures do not have restrictions on design models. The input mesh can be of any genus. The faces in the input mesh can be triangle, quadrilateral, and any polygon. The advantages of this kind of large physical structure construction are low-cost material and prefabrication, easy assemble. Our techniques take the digital fabrication in a new direction and create complex and organic 3D forms. Along the theme of architecture this research has great implication for structure design and makes the more difficult task of construction techniques easier to understand for the fabricator. It has implications to the sculpture world as well as architecture.
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Author: Serra Akboy
Publication date: 2011
Title: The HABS Culture of Documentation with an Analysis of Drawing and Technology
Abstract: The Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) is one of the oldest federal programs in the United States. In 1933, the HABS culture of documentation started with the mission of creating a permanent record of the nation's architectural heritage. Since the inception of the program, the formal documentation methodology has been measured drawings, large-format photographs, and written histories. HABS documentation accentuates the act of drawing as a mediating conversation between the documenter and the historic environment. In a typical HABS project, the documenter is immersed in the historic setting by hand measuring the structure and creating field notes. The documenter's intimate access to the artifact develops his awareness of cultural heritage and helps cultivate an appreciation for the compositional sensibilities of the architectural precedents. However, the HABS culture of documentation has been fine-tuned to incorporate a number of digital technologies into documentation projects. When projects involve issues of logistics, time, and cost, HABS professionals utilize a host of digital methodologies to produce measured drawings. Although HABS prepares deliverables to meet the archival standards of the Library of Congress, the hardware and software necessary to recognize digital files have a limited lifespan that makes them unacceptable for use in the Library. Only measured drawings that use archival ink on stable translucent material, accompanied by negatives on safety film, can be submitted to the Library. Thus, if HABS pursued only digital technologies and deliverables, the effects of this approach on the quality of the documenter's engagement with cultural heritage would pose a significant question. This study addressed the question of how the HABS culture of documentation evolved in regards to drawing and technology, and how this relationship might be transformed in the future. Using HABS as a focus of inquiry is important in order to illuminate similar dynamics in heritage projects that utilize digital technologies. The methodology used in this study included a literature review, participant observations, and an analysis of documentation projects, as well as in-depth interviews with HABS staff, project participants, private practitioners, and academicians. The outcome of the study will be recommendations to heritage professionals for a future that resides in digital means without compromising the qualities that the HABS experience has offered to generation of documenters.
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Author: Saiful Islam
Publication date: 2011
Title: A Study on Zoning Regulations' Impact on Thermal Comfort Conditions in Non-conditioned Apartment Buildings in Dhaka City
Abstract: Unfavorable thermal comfort conditions are common in the non-conditioned apartment buildings typical of Dhaka (Ali, 2007; Hafiz, 2004). Causes behind such unfavorable thermal comfort conditions include (but are not limited to) Dhaka?s climate, microclimate in Dhaka's typical residential neighborhood, its socio-economic context, housing type, and its inadequate planning regulations. Dhaka's climate is hot humid but it can be tackled with well designed buildings as well as well as designed neighborhoods, both of which demands ample open space. However, due to land scarcity and high population density, building developments lack open spaces and that results in unfavorable thermal comfort conditions in apartment buildings. Dhaka?s previous zoning regulations were unable to control this dense development, and therefore, a new set of zoning regulations were enacted (2008). However, no post-evaluation study was conducted to research the effect of this new set of regulations. The intention of this research is to first evaluate the existing regulations, and second, to suggest appropriate zoning regulation schemes for Dhaka's non-conditioned apartment buildings (for a lot size of 1/3 acre), which would provide favorable thermal comfort conditions without changing its existing density. To accomplish the first goal, this research analyzed two existing zoning schemes (one based on regulations of 1996, and the other based on the regulations of 2008). To accomplish the second goal, this research analyzed two hypothetical zoning schemes. The hypothetical ones were studied because this research finds 1996 and 2008 regulations to be two extremes (in terms of allowing open space and building height), and therefore examination of in-between alternative zoning schemes seemed essential for this study. To analyze the four zoning regulation schemes' impact on thermal comfort in apartment buildings, four sets of built environment were created in EnergyPlus (Energy Simulation software) as well as in Fluent (Computational Fluid Dynamics software). Each set of built environment is a cluster of nine buildings; and each set is different from each other in terms of their building footprints and building heights. The building on the center was modeled implicitly, and remaining buildings were modeled as solid blocks (to act as neighboring buildings) for blocking sun and wind. The ES and CFD software simulated possible solar, daylight, and wind availability inside the central building, and consequently produce data on thermal comfort conditions, namely indoor temperature and air velocity. The simulation results were compared to see which zoning schemes provided the most favorable thermal comfort conditions. This research found one of the in-between schemes (60% allowable footprint, 9-story height limit) to be more appropriate in terms of thermal comfort conditions than the other three schemes; because it provides better solar protection and better natural ventilation and consequently it reduces indoor temperature and increases indoor air velocity.
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Author: Samira Pasha
Publication date: 2011
Title: Usability of Outdoor Spaces in Children's Hospitals
Abstract: Researchers have studied the positive effect of healing outdoor environments on hospitalized children, their family members and staff's health and mood. Consequently many modern hospitals dedicate portions of their space to healing outdoor environments. However, these amenities are underutilized due to various design barriers. This research aimed to identify barriers to garden visitation and introduce design guidelines that encourage garden visitation in pediatric hospitals for all groups. Five Texas pediatric hospital gardens were selected to examine the impact of availability of shade, quality and availability of seats, and presence of the healing nature on user satisfaction and garden use. Behavioral observation, surveys, interviews, and site evaluations were conducted. Gardens were ranked based on design qualities, user satisfaction, and frequency and duration of garden visitation. The primary conclusion of this study was that garden visitors' satisfaction with design is positively correlated with presence and quality of hypothesis variables. Duration and frequency of garden visitation also increased in gardens with better shading, seating options, and planting. Other factors identified as influential in increasing garden use included availability of amenities for children and playfulness of design layout. The research findings were instrumental in introducing new design guidelines for future hospital garden design projects. In addition, they served to statistically support design guidelines suggested by previous researchers.
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Author: Pasquale De Paola
Publication date: 2011
Title: A Question of Method: Architettura Razionale and the XV Milan Triennale of 1973
Abstract: My doctoral work aims to construct a theoretical and intellectual framework to understand a set of remarkable developments concerning the Italian discourse on architecture from the early 1950s to the mid 1970s. This was when the term Rationalism and its theoretical body of work acquired renewed prestige replacing the ephemeral aesthetic of the modernist movement with a grounded discourse based on a deep understanding of the city as background of all architectural artifacts. The main hypothesis of my research is that this return to a rational methodology characterized by a deep understanding of architecture's internal building logic and identifiable in the work and ideas expressed in the International section of the XV Triennale Exhibition of 1973 had a significant and lasting impact on the thinking and formation of architecture culture in Italy and worldwide. This dissertation will thus attempt to construct a matrix of historical and methodological associations and demonstrations that validate and legitimize that rational methodology through a close examination of the work and key concepts of Tendenza, a group of architects in the Italy of the 1960s, pointing out their importance in preparing the ground for the International section of the XV Triennale Exhibition of 1973, which represented a major point of arrival and a point of departure for architecture culture in Italy and worldwide.
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Author: Edelmiro Escamilla
Publication date: 2011
Title: Investigation of Project Management Planning Practices for Renovation of Historical Buildings in Urban Contexts Located in Texas
Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between Project Management Planning (PMP) practices and project success for preservation projects of historical significance located in an urban context. The planning for these projects was also emphasized because these historic buildings are recognized by the National Register of Historic Places. Yet, when analyzing the performance metrics of these historically significant renovation projects that included budget and time after the project has been completed denote problems in the management and delivery of these projects. The project team members' perceptions of PMP practices and how these practices affect project success were the focus of this research. To ascertain the importance of these questions, the study incorporated three major bodies of knowledge. The first body of literature focused on project management practices associated with project success. The second concentrated on historic preservation with a focus on historic significance and project planning. The third body centered on facility management as it relates to project management issues in the delivery of a construction project. Combining these bodies of knowledge into one literature review contributed to the development of a conceptual model to illustrate how the research variables and hypotheses were established. To test the research questions and its hypothesis, three statistical tools were used: analysis of variance (ANOVA), descriptive data analysis, and ordinary least square regression. The conclusions from these tests indicated that differences in perceptions of success criteria existed between the project team members. The findings also indicated a significant disconnect between the perceptions of project success and actual performance of project delivery. Furthermore, the findings indicated that only a few project management practices tested were perceived to have significant correlation with project success. The project team members felt that the success criteria of performance and the success factors associated with performance -- site analysis, site layout and staging, and a quality assurance plan -- were more important to the success of the renovation project than many of the management practices in this study.
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Author: Laura Prestwood
Publication date: 2010
Title: Architectural Design Factors Of Domestic Violence Shelters That Affect Outcomes For Female Domestic Violence Victims: A Naturalistic Inquiry To Establish Grounded Theory For Future Research
Abstract: Designing domestic violence shelters for women must be considered from a feminist perspective, inclusive of theories of embodiment, as the female victim's emotional state (mind) is a critical component in determining her overall state (i.e., level of distress). The primary objective of this study (Specific Aim 1) was to identify the mental and emotional state of female domestic violence victims upon entry into a shelter as a means of establishing specific user needs which should directly impact the design of the shelter. The primary hypothesis (Hypothesis 1) was that upon entry into a shelter environment, victims are experiencing high levels of distress compared to normative controls. The secondary objective of this study (Specific Aim 2) was to identify shelter users? perceptions of the current shelter environment in which they lived as a foundation for matching specific design criteria with the specific needs of the female domestic violence victim (i.e., stress reduction) in an attempt to understand the relationship between user needs and individual design characteristics of the shelter. The secondary exploratory hypothesis (Hypothesis 2) was that anxiety or stress is reduced over time; therefore, the architectural design of a shelter that promotes independence will result in less distress among domestic violence victims utilizing the shelter. Thirty-three domestic violence victims in Fort Worth, Texas participated in focus groups and interviews conducted over a four-month period of time in 2009. Qualitative analysis of this data yielded four emergent themes: (1) loss of independence and control: the second layer of fear; (2) the search for security; (3) reconnecting to self; and (4) expressions of humanity. Quantitative analysis was utilized to measure participant stress levels at three intervals during their thirty day shelter program: (1) within the first twenty-four hours of shelter entry; (2) seven to ten days after shelter entry; and (3) fourteen or more days after shelter entry. Findings of this researcher have been utilized to generate design objectives that can be extrapolated to apply to other locations of shelters and could impact the design of new facilities as well as the redesign of current shelters.
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Author: Ahmet Ugursal
Publication date: 2010
Title: Thermal Comfort under Transient Metabolic and Dynamic Localized Airflow Conditions Combined with Neutral and Warm Ambient Temperatures
Abstract: Human thermal environments constitute complex combinations of various interacting thermal factors. The transient and non-uniform nature of those thermal factors further increases the complexity of the thermal comfort problem. The conventional approach to the thermal comfort problem has been simplifying the problem and providing steady thermal environments which would satisfy the majority of the people in a given space. However, several problems emerged with this approach. People became finely tuned to the narrow range of conditions and developed expectations for the same conditions which made them uncomfortable when there were slight deviations from those conditions. Also, the steady approach didn't solve the comfort problem because, in practice, people move between spaces, and thermal conditions such as metabolic rate, surface temperatures, airflow speed and direction vary in a typical day. A human subject test was designed to determine the transient relationship between the people and their environments. In the first part, thermal perceptions of people were taken during various metabolic rate conditions. In the second and the third parts, transient conditions of different thermal factors were created. Various combinations of airflow frequencies, airflow location around the body, metabolic rate, and room temperatures were tested for their individual and interaction effects of providing thermal comfort. The concept of Localized Dynamic Airflow was proposed in which room airflow was simply redirected to different parts of the body with a varying airflow speed. Results showed that males and females respond differently to the thermal conditions. The room temperatures they found neutral were significantly different. People‟s thermal comfort during transient metabolic conditions was similar to high metabolic conditions. This heightened response extended into the next ten minutes after the high metabolic conditions ended. Test results suggested that people tolerate higher temperatures during transient environmental conditions. The average response was for comfortable even during the high temperature (83°F) and high metabolic rate (4 met) conditions. Low energy use of the localized dynamic airflow and the increased room temperatures has significant potential for monetary savings.
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Author: Alethea Bair
Publication date: 2009
Title: Optimization of single and layered surface texturing
Abstract: We present the results of two controlled studies comparing layered surface visualizations under various texture conditions. The task was to estimate surface normals, measured by accuracy of a hand-set surface normal probe. A single surface visualization was compared with the two-surfaces case under conditions of no texture and with projected grid textures. Variations in relative texture spacing on top and bottom surfaces were compared, as well as opacity of the top surface. Significant improvements are found for the textured cases over non-textured surfaces. Either larger or thinner top-surface textures, and lower top surface opacities are shown to give less bottom surface error. Top surface error appears to be highly resilient to changes in texture. Given the results we also present an example of how appropriate textures might be useful in volume visualization.
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Author: Carols Arias Reimers
Publication date: 2009
Title: Housing diversity and consolidation in low income Colonias patterns of house form and household arrangements in Colonias of the US
Abstract: Colonias are low-income settlements on the US-Mexico border characterized by poor infrastructure, minimum services, and an active housing construction with a high self-help and self-management component. Housing in colonias is very diverse showing house forms that include temporary and permanent structures, campers, trailers or manufactured houses and conventional homes. Most of this housing does not meet construction standards and codes and is considered substandard. Colonias households are also of diverse nature and composition including single households, nuclear and extended families, as well as multiple households sharing lots. This wide variety of house forms and households in colonias fits poorly within the nuclear household, single family detached housing idealized by conventional low-income housing projects, programs and policies. As a result, colonias marginally benefit from the resources available to them and continue to depend mostly on the individual efforts of their inhabitants.
This research identifies the housing diversity and the process of housing consolidation in colonias of the US-Mexico border by looking at the patterns of house form and household arrangements in colonias of South Texas. Ten colonias located to the east of the city of Laredo along Highway 359 in Webb County, Texas were selected based on their characteristics, data availability and accessibility. Data collected included periodic aerial images of the colonias spanning a period of 28 years, household information from the 2000 census disaggregated at the block level for these colonias, and information from a field survey and a semi structured interview made to a random sample of 123 households between February and June 2007. The survey collected information about house form and household characteristics. The survey also incorporated descriptive accounts on how households completed their house from the initial structure built or set on the lot until the current house form. Data was compiled and analyzed using simple statistical methods looking for identifiable patterns on house form and household characteristics and changes over time. Findings showed that housing in colonias is built and consolidated following identifiable patterns of successive changes to the house form. Findings also showed that households in colonias share characteristics that change over time in similar ways. These results suggest similarities of colonias with extra-legal settlements in other developing areas. Based on these findings, the study reflects on possible considerations that could improve the impact of projects, programs and policies directed to support colonias and improve colonias housing.
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Author: Craig Anz
Publication date: 2009
Title: Critical Environmentalism Towards An Epistemic Framework For Architecture
Abstract: Upon identifying the multifaceted and disparate array of ever-changing environmental informants to architectural discourse, one is confronted with how to unite this dialogue in meaningful ways to current modes of thought and action. The question gains more significance as our knowledge of the greater environmental domain becomes more systemic and complexly heterogenic, while at the same time, approaches to the issues have proved to be progressively more reductivist, disconnected, overtly abstracted or theorized, and universally globalized in regard to multifaceted and content-rich human particularities in situ. This research focuses on the implications and applications of Critical Environmentalism (CE) to propose a corresponding epistemological framework to wide-ranging socio-environmental complexities occurring across architectural endeavors, primarily within urban and community developments as comprising the greatest number of intersections between human constructions and the greater environmental domain. CE addresses environmental issues reciprocally emerging across numerous disciplines and theoretical stances and fosters critical and systemically collective approaches to knowledge integration, amalgamating multiple stakeholder perspectives within an interconnective and operational goal of creative communal development and betterment of the human condition in relation to environmental concerns. Situating the environment (Umwelt) as an interconnecting catalyst between divergent points-of-views, CE promotes a multi-methodological, co-enabling framework intended to foster increased ethical and participatory dynamics, communal vitality, co-invested attention, and productive interchanges of knowledge that cultivate an overall quality of knowing and being within the intricacies of the greater domain. As such, it engages broader definitions for architecture within its social community, significantly embodied and epistemologically co-substantiating within a shared, environmental life-place. Fundamentally a hermeneutic standpoint, this investigation elucidates conceptual connections and mutual grounds, objectives, and modes-of-operation across knowledge domains, initiating an essential, socio-environmentally oriented framework for architectural endeavors. In this, it brings together common threads within critical social theory and environmentalist discourse to subsequently promote distinct interconnective components within a framework of socio-environmental thought for architecture. The research then provides case examples and recommendations toward stimulating progressive environmental initiatives and thus increased capacity to improve existing epistemic conditions for architecture, urban design, and community development within the broader scope of Critical Environmentalism.
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Author: Gali Zilbershtein
Publication date: 2009
Title: Architecture in the area of terror: design and perception of security of two societies
Abstract: This dissertation falls in the realm of environmental behavior and focuses on the role of the built environment in influencing responses to threats to personal security associated with terrorism. The research integrates pertinent knowledge from psychology, architecture and security/terrorism into a cohesive conceptual framework. Based on the conceptual framework, this work examined the effects of levels of terrorism threat (high vs. low) on people who face public buildings (city hall or shopping mall) that vary in their facade and entrance designs (solid exterior vs. glass facade with/without designed vs. temporary access control security measures). The research was conducted in two societies that are different in their experience with terrorism (Israel and Texas). The effects were measured along four dimensions: how much the issue of terrorism threat is on a person's mind, how safe and how anxious the individual feels, and how likely he/she is to use the building. The investigation consisted of three quasi-experiments and a pretest survey and employed a computer-based web driven platform. A total of 1071 undergraduate students from College Station, Texas and Tel Aviv, Israel participated in these studies. The results illustrate the predominance of the levels of threat of terrorism in influencing all the examined security-related responses. The characteristics of buildings affected those responses to some extent. Differences between the two societies were found mainly in relation to the building-uses. Participants of the two societies responded similarly to the design elements of buildings. In conditions of low threat of terrorism participants from both societies had a higher sense of security when they were exposed to a glass facade compared to a solid concrete facade. In high terrorism threat, participants from both societies felt safer, and were more inclined to use a building with a solid facade. However, when access control security measures were visible to participants in the approach to the building (regardless of their design), both facade designs elicited a similar sense of security, while the propensity to enter the building was higher towards a glass facade.
The study concludes with a discussion of the implications of the results for architectural design.
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Author: Mini Malhotra
Publication date: 2009
Title: An Analysis of off-grid, off-pipe Housing in Six U.S. Climates
Abstract: This dissertation addresses the issues of climate change and depletion of non-renewable resources of energy and water, and aims at eliminating the use of non-renewable resources of energy and water for the building operation in single-family detached residences in the U.S. With this aim, this study investigated the feasibility of the off-grid, off-pipe design approach in six climate locations across the U.S. to achieve self-sufficiency in a house for building energy, indoor water use, and household wastewater and sewage disposal using only on-site available renewable resources. For the analysis, a 2,500 ft 2, 2000/2001 International Energy Conservation Code standard reference house with typical building and usage characteristics was selected as the base case. The six U.S. climate locations included: Minneapolis, MN, Boulder, CO, Atlanta, GA, Houston, TX, Phoenix, AZ, and Los Angeles, CA. The renewable resources considered for this study included: solar radiation, wind, biomass for building energy needs; rainwater for indoor water use. In addition, the building site was considered for the disposal of household wastewater and sewage. The selected climate locations provided different scenarios in terms of base-case building energy needs and availability of renewable resources. Depending on these, energy and water efficiency measures were selected for reducing the building needs. For the reduced building needs, the sizing of systems for self-sufficiency was performed, including: solar thermal system for building's space heating and water heating needs, photovoltaic and wind power systems for building's electricity needs; rainwater harvesting system for indoor water needs; and septic system for the on-site disposal of household wastewater and sewage. In this manner, an integrated analysis procedure was developed for the analysis and design of off-grid, off-pipe homes, and was demonstrated for six U.S. climate locations.
The results of the analysis indicated that achieving self-sufficiency for energy, water and sewage disposal was possible in all climates provided the systems for the collection and storage of renewable resources were large. On the other hand, the utilization of these systems was small for locations, where the year-to-year and seasonal variations in the weather conditions and availability of climate resources was large. For increased system utilization, minimization of the peak building needs, utilization of harvested energy for secondary purposes, and considering alternative systems for such applications are preferred.
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Author: Ozan Ozener
Publication date: 2009
Title: Studio Education for Integrated Practice Using Building Information Modeling
Abstract: This research study posits that an altered educational approach to design studio can produce future professionals who apply Building Information Modeling (BIM) in the context of Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) to execute designs faster and produce designs that have demonstrably higher performance. The combination of new technologies and social/contractual constructs represents an alternative to the established order for how to design and how to teach designers. BIM emerges as the key technology for facilitating IPD by providing consistent, computable and interoperable information essential to all AEC teams. The increasing trend of BIM adoption is an opportunity for the profession to dramatically change its processes and may potentially impact patterns of responsibility and the paradigms of design.
This study showcases a repeatable framework and a theoretical model for the integrated studio using BIM and provides answers to the pedagogical questions raised by BIM, integration, and performance-based design. Using a formative and exploratory action-research design, the study proposes a comprehensive pedagogical framework using the established theories of design studio education, building integration, and BIM. The framework was refined and triangulated in a set of focus group studies that include academics, design firms and AEC industry representatives, as well as students.
Instrumental case studies implementing the pedagogical framework were conducted as courses in a graduate architecture program. Students' design processes and collaboration schemes were observed using systematic methods that included a broad range of data in conformance with a multi-method research approach. Content analysis of the data provides qualitative evidence for the effectiveness and encountered challenges of BIM methods that is related to proposed studio framework. These findings are corroborated by descriptive statistics and numerical data from the surveys, simulations, reports, and BIM models. Findings of the study illustrate that a carefully designed set of course exercises that incorporate BIM can enhance design processes, increase the depth and the number of alternatives studied, catalyze an interoperable and integrated educational environment, and expand the scope of design learning. Case studies presented here suggest common patterns of collaboration between designers and consultants during the integrated design process using shared BIM models. The findings from the study are synthesized in two theoretical models for the BIM enabled integrated studio and collaborative processes.
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Author: Tom McPeek
Publication date: 2009
Title: Collaborative design pedagogy: a naturalistic inquiry of architectural education
Abstract: The design and implementation of architectural projects are almost exclusively collaborative endeavors requiring the expertise of individuals working together to achieve a singular goal. Architects, who are often put at the lead of design projects, are seldom trained at the university level in the skills of collaboration. This apparent failure of design academia to formally embrace a corresponding collaborative pedagogy has resulted in design education trailing disciplines such as business, law, nursing and medicine; each long ago integrating collaborative study models into their curriculum. Current and past efforts in architectural education include intradisciplinary, interdisciplinary and community based collaborations, most on an ad hoc basis and few as an institutionalized part of a curriculum. This paper highlights ethnographic interviews conducted with authorities in architectural education on collaborative methodologies utilized in the design studio and identifies factors that inhibit and facilitate the incorporation of collaborative methods in the context of situated learning.
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Author: Young Jun Park
Publication date: 2009
Title: Predicting the Unit Appraisal Value of the Unimproved and Private Land in the City of Houston by LEED Sustainable Site Credits
Abstract: The primary objectives of this research are to identify the relation between Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) criteria regarding sustainable site credits and the appraised value of land parcels in the City of Houston, and additionally to analyze the effects of detail components which leverage the sustainable credits regarding the Public Transportation Access (PTA) in terms of economic issues. To accomplish these objectives, the approach to estimate sustainable ratings of specific parcels using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was established. Green construction must be one of the most powerful trends in the construction industry. One of the main concepts to underlie the basis of this green construction is sustainability. This sustainability has to be considered in the process of the site selection prior to the actual activities to construct a building. Recently, the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) has suggested the modified guideline with "LEED 2009 for New Construction and Major Renovations". According to this metric, it is clear that this principle endeavors to block environmental abuses related to land development or restoration projects. On the other hand, it is not easy to check the serviceability of these rules to guarantee continuous economic merit through sustainable land development or restoration encouraged by these criteria.
The criteria regarding the sustainable site selection in this LEED metric are Sustainable Site Credit (SSC) #1: Site Selection, SSC #3: Brownfield, and SSC #4.1: Public Transportation Access. Linear regression methods were used for predictive analysis. In this model, the unit appraisal value of the land was used as the dependent variable to reflect the economic values of the land, and LEED-sustainable-site criteria were used as the categorical independent variables.
According to statistical results, the models to predict the appraisal parcel value using sustainable site components have relatively low R-square. Moreover, SSC #1 and SSC #3 were not significant factors affecting the unit value of land. This outcome means that there are no statistically significant effects of SSC #1 and SSC #3 on parcel value.
On the other hand, SSC #4.1 was highly significant. Furthermore, the detail components of SSC #4.1 regarding the bus stops and railroad stations were also significant. These results can lead to improved environmental preservation by avoiding development which is far from the PTA as well as increasing economic value while enhancing the development density near the PTA corridors. Finally, GIS was used to determine the LEED ratings of individual parcels. The methods established to do this can be applied to other projects for the other regions, or the same region at different times.
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Author: Zhe Wang
Publication date: 2009
Title: Nearby Outdoor Environmental Support of Older Adults' Yard
Abstract: This study investigated the under-explored relationship between residential site environments of older adults and their yard activities, from the perspectives of health, gerontology, and environment-behavior issues.
This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas about their previous yard activities and environmental features of their previous residential sites, before moving to a retirement community. Twenty environmental features thought to be related to yard activities were studied at the building level and at the site level; these were classified into four categories: 1) Typology; 2) Motivators; 3) Functionality; and 4) Safety. Based on the availability of data, the presence of environmental features on 57 sample sites was determined in Geographic Information Systems.
Including personal factors and social factors in modeling, the frequency and/or the duration per occurrence of yard activities were positively associated with three site features: transitional-areas, connecting-paths, and levels of pleasant indoor sunshine.
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Author: Zhipeng Lu
Publication date: 2009
Title: Design for the frail old: environmental and perceptual influences on corridor walking behaviors of assisted living residents
Abstract: Background: Physical inactivity is a prevalent health problem among long-term care residents. Previous research indicates that objective and perceived physical environments play important roles in physical activity behaviors. In assisted living facilities, corridors have the potential to promote walking because frail older residents spend most of their time indoors. Yet the impacts of corridor features on residents' walking behaviors are poorly understood. 
Specific Aims: The overall aim is to explore the relationship between physical features of corridors in assisted living facilities and residents' walking behaviors, and to assess how residents' perceptions of corridor walkability influence this relationship. Specific research questions will be addressed in each phase of the project. 
Methods: Study Design: The study will employ a mixed-method research design that incorporates focus groups, survey and photographic experiment in a sequential order with the preceding method generating hypotheses for the succeeding one. Setting and Population: The study area will be in central Texas. 1) Focus groups will be conducted in six facilities. In each group, six to twelve residents will take part in the discussion. 2) Fifteen facilities will participate in the survey, with 300-400 residents involved. 3) In the photographic experiment, fifty residents will be randomly recruited from two facilities. Facilities for focus groups and the survey will be purposely selected in order to achieve a wide range of variety in the corridor physical features. Measures: 1) Open-ended questions will be asked during focus groups to elicit information about residents' walking experience and to conceptualize walkable corridors. 2) The survey questionnaires and the Corridor Coding System Scales (CCSS) (a corridor environmental audit tool) will be developed on the basis of the literature and the results of focus groups. Resident's survey questionnaire will be used to measure residents' walking behaviors, perceptions of indoor walking environments, and physical and psychological health status. Administrator's questionnaire will collect facility-level information such as activity programs offered and policies related to walking. The CCSS will be employed to objectively measure the physical features of indoor corridors. 3) A set of photographs will be created with corridor elements (e.g. chair and plant) systematically manipulated in the scenes. The experiment will further test residents' preferences on certain corridor features regarding walking. Analysis: 1) The qualitative data from focus groups will be analyzed using the refined version of the constant comparative method provided by Lincoln and Guba (1984). 2) Simple regression analyses and Hierarchical Linear Model will be combined to analyze the survey data. 3) ANOVA and paired-sample t-test will be used to analyze the data of the photographic experiment.
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Author: Althea G. Arnold
Publication date: 2008
Title: Development of a Method for Recording Energy Costs and Uses During the Construction Process
Abstract: Rising energy costs should be a concern to contractors, designers, and owners. It is difficult to make a quantity takeoff for energy usage because these costs are imbedded in the materials, equipment, or overhead costs. This research examines energy consumption during the construction process, sets forth methods for recording this energy consumption and establishes a program for the recording and analysis of this data.
An energy study of electricity, gasoline, and diesel consumption was made for the construction of three buildings to determine what data was available. After available data was evaluated, and the Energy Data Analysis program developed, three other construction sites were visited to determine how readily energy data can be recorded using the program.
Four construction energy phases were identified from this research. The four phases are: (1) site clearing and preparation, (2) building structure, (3) interior finishes, and (4) commissioning. The main type of energy consumption during Phase 1 is diesel fuel for earth moving equipment. The energy uses for Phases 2 and 3 varied considerably among the projects studied and were difficult to quantify. However, the energy use during these phases was low compared to other phases and for many projects may not be economical to evaluate. During Phase 4, electrical energy demand was high due to Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) commissioning requirements and power up of all electrical power uses including lighting.
These few construction projects are not enough to make definitive conclusions about what percentage of the total project cost is spent on energy. This research found that construction energy costs vary during different phases of the building process and can be a significant part of that phase (as high as 5.7% of the cost). The Visual Basic program developed during this research will facilitate future energy studies on construction sites. When the program is applied to a project, it identifies and quantifies the energy use, and makes predictions as to which project tasks warrant further energy studies.
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Author: Arsenio Rodrigues
Publication date: 2008
Title: The sacred in architecture: A study of the presence and quality of place-making patterns in sacred and secular buildings
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to test whether the presence and quality of certain place patterns contributed to place being experienced as sacred. The results are intended to make available an assessment method based on pattern presence and pattern quality for determining whether a specific built environment is more likely to be experienced as sacred or secular. The research explored the difference in the presence and quality of place patterns at two selected case studies: Rothko Chapel and Contemporary Arts Museum, both in Houston, TX. Three types of data were collected and analyzed: graphical data, questionnaire data, and focus group discussion data. Graphical data included photographs and sketches with field notes. A total of forty-eight questionnaires were administered to twenty-four Houston architects at the selected buildings. The focus group discussion panel consisted of six participants'three architects and three spiritual mentors from Houston. Relative frequencies were calculated for multiple-choice answers in the questionnaire, while open-ended questionnaire items were subjected to inductive content analysis. Focus group discussion data was examined and coded. The study concludes that built environments which possess a higher presence and higher quality of certain place patterns are more likely to be experienced as sacred than built environments with a lower presence and lower quality of the place patterns. A pattern matrix and a set of design guidelines for sacred place-making were produced as part of this study.
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Author: Carlos Nome
Publication date: 2008
Title: Pre-Programming: Evaluation of Workspace Types and Workspace Alternatives in Educational Settings
Abstract: The overall objective of this research was to improve the understanding of worker attitudes and perceptions toward different workspace types and workspace alternatives and how they are related to processes and activities native to a given organization. The specific goals of this study were: The development of a methodology to assess workers attitudes toward different workspace alternatives for use in the planning stages of new offices. Identification of workspace variables that affect perceptions and preferences regarding the alternatives based on the proposed units of analysis (individual, interpersonal relations, and organizational). This research consisted of mixed methodology. It was a cross departmental study of needs and preferences of workers regarding key variable and choices of workspace types and workspace alternatives. The main research instrument was a four stage web based survey. The secondary component was focus groups. By tracking these declared needs, preferences and choices regarding workspace types and workspace alternatives it was possible to identify if they associate with demographic information, work performance, and the proposed units of analysis, within a given organizational structure. This information provided a substantial knowledge base for decision makers in the planning stage of relocation of people, and the allocation of space processes. This study provided decision makers in the above mentioned processes a tested methodology that enables the development of a proactive approach to innovative workspace planning. The results are relevant to designers, managers and facility managers as it provides a perspective to understand or identify potential space and layout improvements in existing and future workplaces based on the core activities of any given organization. Such information will allow managers to make informed decisions about future workspace changes, as well as planning new workspace alternatives to continually support the organization's objectives.
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Author: Irina Solovyova
Publication date: 2008
Title: The Role Of The Autobiographical Experiences With Emotional Significance of an Architect in Design Conjecturing
Abstract: The dissertation investigates the role of autobiographical memories with emotional significance in architectural design conjecturing. The dissertation is structured as a set of individual articles (chapters), each can be read independently. To set the background to the empirical research, an overview of models of the design process, intuition in design, memory, emotion and place are presented. The empirical research consists of comparison of two case studies. Ethnographic methods were used for data collection. Direct analysis, indirect analysis (content analysis of protocols) and analysis of language for affect were used to scrutinize the data. Findings clearly indicate the utilization of autobiographical memories with emotional significance in design conjecturing. The study describes the types of autobiographical memories with emotional significance and purpose of their use in design conjecturing. In general, the dissertation study indicated that half of thought content used by architects during design conjecturing comes from their autobiographical experience. At the same time, personal experiences of students are neglected in architectural education. Overview of the current status of architectural education leads to the argument that academia is due for a paradigm change. The dissertation provides suggestion on the direction of changes in design education.
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Author: Xuemei Zhu
Publication date: 2008
Title: Community Environments And Walking-To-School Behaviors: Multi-Level Correlates and Underlying Disparities
Abstract: Walking can be a safe, healthy, and affordable mode of school transportation. However, most students today do not use walking for their school travel. More research is needed to understand the correlates of walking to or from school and to identify effective interventions. This is a cross-sectional study of 73 public elementary schools in the Austin Independent School District of Texas. The first phase used geographic information systems and field audits to examine school-level disparities in the environmental support for walking in schools' attendance areas. The second phase involved surveys of students' parents or guardians to identify the multi-level correlates of using walking as their children's typical school travel mode. In the first phase, results from analyses of variance and linear regressions indicated the existence of disparities. Lower economic status of student population was associated with poorer street conditions (e.g., maintenance, visual quality, amenities, and perceived safety), shorter distances to school, and lower traffic volumes. Higher percentage of Hispanic students within a school was associated with increased danger from traffic and crime and more sidewalks, greater population density, and mixed land uses. The second phase used binary logistic regressions to predict walking to or from school. Among the personal and social factors, parents' education, car ownership, personal barriers, and school bus availability were negative correlates, while parents' and children's positive attitude and regular walking habit and supportive peer influences were positive correlates. Of the physical environmental factors, long distance and safety concerns were the strongest negative correlates, followed by the presence of highways or freeways, convenience stores, office buildings, and bus stops en route. In conclusion, environmental interventions are needed to develop centrally located neighborhood schools, barrier-free attendance areas, and well-maintained pedestrian infrastructure. Disparities and fine-grained differences are found in the environmental support for walking. A high priority for low-income, Hispanic children and interventions tailored for specific contexts and populations appear necessary. Safety improvement is indispensible in terms of both traffic and crime and should be supplemented with educational programs that target both parents and children. Finally, multi-agency collaborations are needed at the policy level to support and facilitate these multi-level interventions.
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Author: Jin Gyu Park
Publication date: 2007
Title: Environmental Color for Pediatric Patient Room Design
Abstract: Color has a large impact on our psychological and physiological responses. This study examines the value of color as a component in a healing environment for pediatric patient rooms by measuring color preferences among healthy children, pediatric patients, and design professionals. Environmental satisfaction is a significant mediator between the physical environment and children's health. Previous color preference studies have typically been done with small color chips or papers, which are very different from seeing a color applied on wall surfaces. A simulation method allowed for investigating the value of color in real contexts and controlling confounding variables. The findings of this study demonstrated that blue and green are the most preferred, and white the least preferred color, by both children and design professionals. Children's gender differences were found in that boys prefer red and purple less than girls. Pediatric patients reported lower preference scores for yellow than did healthy children. These findings lead to color application guidelines for designers to understand color more and eventually to create better environments for children and their families.
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Author: Narongpon Laiprakobsup
Publication date: 2007
Title: The Emergence of The Essence
Abstract: The study aims to develop the theory of inbetween place. The inbetweens have been important elements in architectural design as transitional and reconciling realms. Architecture of place and its theories has been dominated the environmental design as place-making. However, the inbetween environments have not been clarified in significant, living place-forms for interval embodiment and systemic relationships between juxtaposing places. Through inbetween places, domains in juxtaposition will be comprehensively integrated as the whole. By a triangulation from three standpoints--phenomenological, embodied realism, and neo-structuralism--through case studies, the intrinsic characteristics and underlying essence of inbetween modes of place is identified. The study argues that inbetween places present themselves as living forms of connectedness, embodied presence, and significant pauses. Distinctive inbetween presences of place emerge from three frameworks--synthesized presence of place and the inbetweens, embodied presence of the inbetweens, and presence of inbetween "Significant Forms." On presence of place and the inbetweens, inbetween places reflect living forms of intervals as interconnecting mediums between neighboring places. As an interval place, inbetween places, based on embodied presence, can be defined as distinct body of junctions by organized complexity of edges. According to Langer's term "Significant Form" of place, inbetween places convey the symbolic presence of associative, edging layers that clarify differences and spatial relations between environmental juxtapositions. From a framework triangulation, inbetween places manifest complex interval domains of associative junctions as fundamental composite presences of: (1) defined inbetween containments; (2) active edging junctions or layers of juxtaposition; and (3) associative layers with places in juxtaposition. The essential quality of concrete, interrelating junctions between places separates inbetween places from inbetween placeless-ness. Inbetween places are intermediary domains creating vital and aesthetic links between places in juxtaposition; on the other hand, inbetween placeless-ness is deprived of a significant place of meaningful interactions with nearby realms. Thus, inbetween places turn out to be critical domains to develop comprehensive relationships between juxtaposing places, drawing different domains nearby to be bonded through the presence of adaptive, edging layers of places.
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Author: Sopa Visitsak
Publication date: 2007
Title: An Evaluation of the Bioclimatic Chart for choosing Design Strategies for a Thermostatically - Controlled Residence in selected Climates
Abstract: To be successful in sustainable building design, architects must consider energy efficient design strategies in the early design stage. Unfortunately, many architects still rely on simplified analysis, synthesis techniques, and historical examples. Although, building energy simulations are becoming more common in the design of buildings, architects rarely use simulation in the early design stage. The "Bioclimatic" charts have been used in the early design stage to define potential building design strategies to achieve indoor thermal comfort. Currently, many architects use the Givoni-Milne bioclimatic design chart (Milne and Givoni, 1979), which was developed based on principle reasoning and heuristics. There have been many attempts to develop computerized programs to further the bioclimatic analysis; however, there have been very limited efforts to test and evaluate the design strategies of the chart using simulations of a thermostatically-controlled building. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to promote comfortable buildings that reduce energy use through appropriate building design strategies. The objectives of the research are to develop a more accurate bioclimatic chart for a thermostatically-controlled residence by testing and evaluating the Givoni-Milne bioclimatic chart. The analysis is performed with DOE-2.1e program (Winkelmann, 1993) and TMY2 weather data (Marion and Urban, 1995) for several climates. To achieve these objectives, four main tasks were accomplished: (1) investigate the Givoni-Milne Bioclimatic Chart using representative weather data from several climates, (2) analyze and modify the design strategy boundaries using DOE-2 program and TMY2 weather data to simulate the effects of varied conditions of a thermostatically-controlled residence in different climates, (3) compare these new design strategy boundaries to the original Givoni-Milne design strategy boundaries, and (4) develop general guidelines for the new bioclimatic chart. In summary, there were some differences in the results from the Givoni-Milne bioclimatic chart and the DOE-2 simulation results. These results imply that without further modification, the G-M Chart may have only a limited use for a thermostatically controlled residence. Therefore, to improve the usefulness of the bioclimatic chart the new bio-climatic chart for choosing design strategies for a thermostatically-controlled residence in the hot-humid climate of Houston, Texas, was developed. This new bioclimatic chart for a thermostatically-controlled residence will be a useful tool for architects and engineers in the early design stage. Similar versions of the new bioclimatic for other climates could then be developed.
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Author: You Kyoung Ahn
Publication date: 2007
Title: Adaptive Reuse of Abandoned Historic Churches: Building Type and Public perception
Abstract: This study investigates the adaptive reuse of abandoned historic churches. Since churches serve as cultural heritage symbols, the public becomes concerned with maintaining the historic integrity of these buildings. More so, this phenomenon is accentuated when the church is recognized as a historic building by the National Register of Historic Places. Yet, more and more churches are abandoned due to decreases in congregation size and financial constraints that limit the maintenance of the churches. Adaptive reuse projects of these abandoned churches are often initiated to save and preserve these buildings. This research focuses on the question: What is the public perception of critical architectural features of a historic church when it is adapted to a new function (new building type)? To support the importance of this question, the study integrates two major bodies of knowledge. The first body of literature is research conducted in cognitive science focusing on human perception of environments. The second body of literature is on historic preservation with a focus on adaptive reuse. The integration of these literature reviews is further demonstrated in the analysis of examples of past and recent adaptive reuse projects of religious buildings. Following this investigation, a conceptual model was developed to illustrate how research variables and hypotheses were made based on the findings from this literature review.
To test the research question and its hypotheses, two prototypes of historic churches were developed. Then, typologies of changes in the important architectural features (interior volume and light quality) of the churches were constructed from examples of adaptively reused historic churches listed in the National Register of Historic Places. These typologies were developed to represent various building types (e.g., community/cultural, institutional, commercial, and residential). Finally, an experiment was conducted to test public perceptions of acceptable and desirable degree of each reuse and the degree of retaining religious origins by use of these typologies.
The findings of this research illustrate the importance of public perception and building type in adaptive reuse projects. This in turn provides theoretical and practical implications for adaptive reuse projects in the field of historic preservation.
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Author: Cassandrea Hager
Publication date: 2005
Title: Developing Standards for Undergraduate University construction Education Internship Programs
Abstract: Personally observed variability among construction education internship programs prompted this investigation. The schools of construction that form the Associated Schools of Construction (ASC) encourage its members to provide curricula that produces qualified professionals for the construction industry. There is agreement within ASC that a practical component along with classroom curriculum is needed for construction students' education (Senior, 1997). Although construction programs have different ways of accomplishing this experiential component, most do have some sort of internship or cooperative program (Chapin, et al., 2003). Construction internships vary greatly from one program to the next - in length, supervision, academic deliverables, and whether credit is earned. No common set of internship field experience standards or best-practices guidelines have been developed for construction education. This study was divided into three subproblems. Subproblem One describes the status of construction internship programs currently administered in selected American undergraduate universities. Subproblem Two identifies elements that students, companies and schools perceive to support valuable, satisfying internship experiences. And, Subproblem Three incorporates findings from Subproblems One and Two to identify common elements to provide a structure for construction internship programs, in order to develop a set of guidelines for construction education internship programs. Three constituencies were surveyed: 1) university undergraduate construction programs, 2) construction companies, and 3) students of the respective construction programs. The school survey utilized ASC membership rosters to survey 91 schools, with 56 participating (62%). The company survey randomly sampled 200 of the Top 400 U.S. Construction Companies listed in Engineering News Record's ENR Sourcebook 2003, with 75 participating (37.5%). The student survey had 31 students from eleven schools in nine different states voluntarily participate. Univariate analyses on only one variable at a time served to describe the survey population, and by extension, the population from which the sample was selected. The data were analyzed utilizing frequency percentages and summary averages including mode and mean. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that a set of "best-practices" guidelines were needed for construction education internship programs. A set of best practices guidelines for developing construction education internship programs are provided.
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Author: Kwanchai Roachanakana
Publication date: 2005
Title: A Case Study of Cost Overruns in a Thai Condominium Project
Abstract: Construction managers confront many problems. Still, this industry plays a vital role in the healthy growth of the economy of many countries throughout the developed and developing world. Effective management of construction projects has been a major research subject in the last century due to the importance of this industry and the amount of money it attracts. One critical problem facing construction managers is inefficient cost control procedures, particularly in developing regions of the world. Since the end of the Second World War, the use of sophisticated cost control procedures in managing and controlling project costs have been accepted and applied widely in many parts of the world such as the United States and the United Kingdom. These procedures are important in a growing economy to ensure delivery of projects on time and within budget, but they are equally important during an economic recession when project viability becomes marginal. In the early 1990s, the construction industry in Thailand played a critical role during a period of strong economic growth. Construction cost control was not a major concern as developers rushed to capitalize on the booming market. In the late 1990s, the economy of Southeast Asia sank into recession. Project cost control became a critical issue for the developers as well as the construction companies in managing construction projects. A significant number of projects in Thailand in the late 1990s had significant cost overruns. Cost overruns had been a problem during the high growth period in the early 1990s, but demand overcame the problems created by poor cost control. The use of good project cost control procedures has become a concern of project investors and construction companies in Thailand since the recession of the late 1990s. Project managers and developers are now aware that the failure of a cost control system or use of a poor system can lead to project failure. Project cost control methods need to be improved in Thailand to ensure that owners and contractors manage construction costs and meet project goals on time and within budget. In this study, project cost controls in the United States and Thailand will be examined. These procedures will be analyzed to identify their similarities and differences. The causes and solutions for cost overruns in the two countries will also be examined. The results from the study will illustrate how the project cost control procedures used in the United States can be applied to the construction industry in Thailand to improve the procedures used by Thai contractors.
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Author: Rima Al Ajlouni
Publication date: 2005
Title: Development and Evaluation of a Digital Tool for Virtual Reconstruction of Historic Islamic Geometric Patterns
Abstract: For the purpose of cultural heritage preservation, the task of recording and reconstructing visually complicated architectural geometrical patterns is facing many practical challenges. Existing traditional technologies rely heavily on the subjective nature of our perceptual power in understanding its complexity and depicting its color differences. This study explores one possible solution, through utilizing digital techniques for reconstructing detailed historical Islamic geometric patterns. Its main hypothesis is that digital techniques offer many advantages over the human eye in terms of recognizing subtle differences in light and color. The objective of the study is to design, test and evaluate an automatic visual tool for identifying deteriorated or incomplete archaeological Islamic geometrical patterns captured in digital images, and then restoring them digitally, for the purpose of producing accurate 2D reconstructed metric models. An experimental approach is used to develop, test and evaluate the specialized software. The goal of the experiment is to analyze the output reconstructed patterns for the purpose of evaluating the digital tool in respect to reliability and structural accuracy, from the point of view of the researcher in the context of historic preservation. The research encapsulates two approaches within its methodology; Qualitative approach is evident in the process of program design, algorithm selection, and evaluation. Quantitative approach is manifested through using mathematical knowledge of pattern generation to interpret available data and to simulate the rest based on it. The reconstruction process involves induction, deduction and analogy. The proposed method was proven to be successful in capturing the accurate structural geometry of the deteriorated straight-lines patterns generated based on the octagon-square basic grid. This research also concluded that it is possible to apply the same conceptual method to reconstruct all two-dimensional Islamic geometric patterns. Moreover, the same methodology can be applied to reconstruct many other pattern systems. The conceptual framework proposed by this study can serve as a platform for developing professional softwares related to historic documentation. Future research should be directed more towards developing artificial intelligence and pattern recognition techniques that have the ability to supplement human power in accomplishing difficult tasks.
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Author: Sakkara Rasisuttha
Publication date: 2005
Title: An Investigation of Methods for Reducing the Use of Non-renewable Energy Resources for Housing in Thailand
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to develop methods that reduce energy consumption in a residential building in a hot and humid climate region (Thailand) using efficient architectural building components and renewable energy (solar energy) to produce electricity, domestic hot water, and supplemental cooling by night sky radiation. Improving the architectural building components, including building materials, is an option to reduce energy consumption in a building. Using renewable energy sources is another option to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy. In residential buildings, solar energy has been utilized for space heating and domestic hot water using active solar collector systems and for generating electricity using photovoltaic (PV) systems. One photovoltaic system, the hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) collector system, has been developed by several researchers over the last 20 years. The hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) collector system is a combination photovoltaic (for producing electricity) and solar thermal collector (for producing hot water).Theoretical and experimental studies of this collector have highlighted the advantages of the hybrid PV-T collector system over separate systems of PV and solar collector in term of system efficiency and economics. Unfortunately, very little experimental data exists that demonstrates the advantages of a combined system. Therefore, one of the objectives of this study conducted was an experimental study of this system as an auxiliary energy source for a residential building. Night sky radiation has also been studied as a cooling strategy. However, no attempt so far could be found to integrate it to a hybrid PV-T collector system. The night sky radiation strategy could be operated with the hybrid PV/T collector system by using existing resources that are already present in the solar system. The integration of the night sky radiation into the hybrid PV-Tcollector system should yield more productivity of the system than the operation of the Hybrid PVTsystem alone. The research methods used in this work included instrumentation of a case-study house in Thailand, an experimental PV-T collector system, and a calibrated building thermal simulation. A typical contemporary Thai residential building was selected as a case-study house. Its energy use and local weather data were measured and analyzed. Published energy use of Thai residential buildings was also analyzed as well to determine average energy consumption. A calibrated computer model of the case-study building was constructed using the DOE-2 program. A field experiment of the thermal PV system was constructed to test its ability to simultaneously produce electricity and hot water in the daytime, and shed heat at night as a cooling strategy (i.e., night sky radiation). The resultant electricity and hot water produced by the hybrid PV-T collector system helped to reduce the use of non-renewable energy. The cooling produced by the night sky radiation also has to potential to reduce the cooling load. The evaluation of the case-study house and results of the field experiment helped to quantify the potential reduction of energy use in Thai residential buildings. This research provided the following benefits: 1) experimental results of a hybrid PV-Tsolar collector system that demonstrates its performance compared to typical system of separate photovoltaic and solar collector, 2) results of night sky radiation experiments using a photovoltaic panel as a radiator to demonstrate the performance of this new space cooling strategy, and 3) useful data from the case-study house simulation results and guidelines to assist others in transferring the results to other projects.
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Author: Samer Al Ratrout
Publication date: 2005
Title: Feasibility Study of Using Optical Moire Interferometry Technique for Fine-grain Surface Relief in Heritage Recording
Abstract: In order to prepare for the prospective need for heritage 3D recording, the main objective of this research was to investigate a new depth measuring method that can reduce identified limitations of current point-to-point measuring approaches. The limitations were time-money consumption, intrusiveness, accuracy assumption and efficiency. In many disciplines other than heritage recording, optical moire interferometry techniques (OMIT) are well developed as a measuring method and are considered fast, non-intrusive, accurate, and efficient. Based on these considerations, this research hypothesized that OMIT, as a measuring method, is feasible with respect to time-consumption and accuracy in acquiring depth measurement for fine-grain surface relief for historic recording. To test this hypothesis, a feasibility investigation was carried in which OMIT was used for surface relief topographic recording. This goal was approached by performing a comparison study between the OMIT measuring method as the investigated method and the hand measuring method as the control method. For each method, the comparison required performing eight experimental samplings of relief recording for a pre-designed physical model surface. The data collected from the hand measuring samples were the depth measurements of predefined points on the model surface and the time consumption for both measuring and data preparing processes. The data collected from the OMIT measuring samples were moire dark fringes generated on the model surface and the time-consumption for both moire generating and data preparing processes. For measurement accuracy evaluation, the collected depth data were prepared in the form of topographic contour drawings. For the OMIT feasibility evaluation, a comparison was carried out to examine the resulting topographic contour drawings for depth measurement accuracy level and measuring process time-consumption. In conclusion, the OMIT method showed higher depth measurement accuracy levels and lower process time-consumption than the hand method. The OMIT method also demonstrated less intrusiveness and more efficiency. This superiority validates the feasibility of using fine-grain surface relief for heritage recording purposes. Finally, the observed advantages of the OMIT method were presented to establish potentials for future developments and investigations. The observed limitations of the method were also pointed out to establish trends for recommendations and further studies.
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Author: Tanya Komas
Publication date: 2005
Title: Historic Building Documentation in the United States, 1933-2000: The Historic American Building Survey, A Case Study
Abstract: The objective of the study was to gain new insight into archival building documentation in the United States since 1933 focusing on Historic American Buildings Survey(HABS) as a case study. It sought to help explain how individuals with different levels of involvement with the HABS program, and throughout its entire history, understood the development, current operational context, and future direction of HABS. Seven general philosophical and practical issues were explored: 1) how HABS documentation standards were understood and applied, 2) the relative values of the process and products of documentation, 3) the understanding and application of the objective and subjective natures of the documentation process, 4) whether the mission of the program had changed with changes in the operation of the program since its inception, 5) the role of technology in the process of HABS documentation and how it shapes the end products, 6) defining broader historical epochs with the goal of adding to existing understandings of the history of the program, and 7) the causes and effects of HABS drawing style changes over time.
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Author: Marie-AndrAe Fournier
Publication date: 1999
Title: Impact of a Family-Centered-Care Approach on the Design of Neonatal Intensive Care Units
Abstract: The presence and involvement of families in the neonatal intensive-care unit offers a unique way to humanize the healthcare experience for infants, their families, and their caregivers. Unfortunately, the physical environment of intensive-care units has been identified as an obstacle to the effective practice of family-centered care. A better understanding of family-centered care in the perinatal context is essential to optimize the design of the physical environment. This qualitative study explored the human behaviors and interactions of families and caregivers in the physical environment of a neonatal intensive-care unit. Inspired by an ecological model that considered all aspects of a situation physical, social, and organizational the research proceeded with a multi-method approach that included plan analysis, observations of participants, interviews with the caregivers, and questionnaires to families. Data were content-analyzed to provide a better understanding of the role played by the environment in enhancing and/or obstructing the implementation and practice of family-centered care, as well as the impact of a family-centered care approach on the use of the space. As a result, information was first encoded in three types of categories corresponding to the three types of interactions occurring in the NICU: 1) interactions between parents and infants; 2) interactions between families and caregivers; and 3) interactions between caregivers and infants, and among caregivers. Analyzing families and caregivers behaviors, four environmental themes emerged as central concepts to understand the relationships between the environment and families and caregivers coordinated action in the NICU: 1) privacy and intimacy; 2) social support and interaction; 3) comfort and image; and 4) functionality, flexibility, and accessibility. Those themes were important to conceptualize the performance of the environment in supporting a family-centered care approach. Findings led to the elaboration of final recommendations to guide the design of Planetree neonatal intensive-care units practicing family-centered care.
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Author: Suk Bong Kim
Publication date: 1998
Title: The Analysis of Factors Affecting Energy Consumption of Duplex Residences in College Station, Texas
Abstract: The overall purpose of this research was to characterize the variability of energy consumption due to a series of construction, occupant, and weather-related effects in duplex residences in College Station, Texas. Spline regression was used to estimate cooling efficiency, heating efficiency, base load, modified cooling balance temperature, and modified heating balance temperature for monthly billed kWh and average daily outside temperature. These estimates were used to predict normalized annual consumption. Best subsets regression and multiple regression were used to explore the relationship between energy consumption and construction occupant, and weather-related factors. Normalized annual consumption, actual energy consumption, cooling efficiency heating efficiency, and base load were used as dependent variables. Construction-related factors included market value, floor area, perimeter, length of common wall, year built, wall materials, roof reflectivity, shading factor orientation perpendicular to the common wall, and number of bedrooms. There were seven occupant-related factors: winter thermostat-set temperature, summer thermostat-set temperature, programmable thermostat setting, adjusted thermostat setting, number of occupants, student or not, and monthly rent. Weather-related factors included cooling efficiency, heating efficiency, base load, modified cooling balance temperature, and modified heating balance temperature. The sample for this study was 140 duplex residences which used only electricity for cooling and heating, and had one year minimum occupancy in College Station, Texas. The spline regression models with weather- related factors achieved adjusted R 2 values averaging 0.82. Construction, occupant, and weather-related factors were determined to be components of energy consumption. In the final modeling, construction, occupant, and weather-related factors accounted for 0.96 of the variance for the actual energy consumption of duplex residences. Some significant differences were found between the models which contained the weather-related factors and the models which did not contain the weather-related factors. This study demonstrated that weather-related factors were a very important factor in the analysis of energy consumption.
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Author: In-Kon Kim
Publication date: 1997
Title: Subjective Responses to Daylight, Sunlight, and View in College Classrooms with Windows
Abstract: In recent times, because of full air conditioning and permanent full or supplementary artificial lighting, the function of windows has changed in the United States. As a result of this change, the psychological aspects of the window functions are more important than the quantity of the light or ventilation provided by the window. The qualitative or psychological aspects of the window functions require a different window design from a design for the quantitative aspects of the window. This study investigates the psychological effects of daylight, sunlight, and view provided by the classroom windows to provide the new design criteria for classroom windows. This study includes two separate experiments: the first experiment is to investigate and window classrooms, and the second experiment is to investigate how different window configurations impact psychological responses. The windows in the classrooms provide positive emotion to the classroom environment and serve to increase academic satisfaction with the classrooms. However, there is no difference between classrooms without the windows and with the windows, which do not provide view and natural light. This result clearly shows the necessity of the windows in the college classroom. The attribution of view through the windows is the most important factor in window design for college classrooms. It is necessary that the orientation of the windows is decided by considering the outside view. Sunlight might be welcomed by classroom occupants, unless sunlight reaches to the workplane and becomes a glare source. Many small windows are better for windows might have occupants feel more alive and pleasant and increase the effect of view types. The best window condition selected by participants in this study is eight small windows providing sunlight and a good view. The worst condition is two large windows providing daylight (no sunlight) and a poor view.
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Author: Wonpi Kim
Publication date: 1997
Title: Effects of Dwelling Floor Level on Factors Related to Residential Satisfaction and Home Environment in High-Rise Apartment Buildings
Abstract: The wider context for this study is the premise that high- rise apartment living has negatively contributed to a variety of problems related to the physical conditions of existing apartment buildings. Critics of high-rise housing attack the very concept of apartment living. Regarding high-rise living environments, building height is an important physical dimension of a resident's perception. The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to residential satisfaction and home environment, and to examine the effects of dwelling floor level on these factors and personal characteristics. The review of literature and factor analysis identified six important environmental factors physical quality of dwelling unit, safety/security, social interaction, self-expression/place-identity, physical qualities of neighborhood environment, and management/maintenance. Seven hundred and fifty subjects were randomly selected from eight high-rise apartment communities in major U.S. cities. Three hundred and ninety- six residents responded to the mail survey. The average respondent was an unmarried, over 40, female, employed Caucasian with at least one college degree. This group had typically lived in their current high-rise for 6 to 9 years and had an annual income, ranging from $40,000 to $59,999. Contrary to general assumptions about high-rise apartment buildings being inappropriate housing alternatives, these groups of residents reported a high degree of satisfaction with their high-rise residences. An examination of dwelling floor effects on the six factors indicated that the physical qualities of the dwelling unit were the only significant relationship. It was also found that no personal characteristics except gender and type of tenure were significantly related to the dwelling floor level for this specific group. Multiple-regression analysis found that both physical quality of dwelling unit and management/maintenance were important predictors of residential satisfaction and home environment on all floors. Although this study investigated the effects of dwelling floor level on factors explored, only a small portion of these relationships were significant. "Living on a different floor" in high-rise apartment buildings does not contribute significantly to the problems associated with high-rise living. Therefore, blank condemnation of high-rise dwellings that does not consider specific contexts should be questioned. When the buildings were well-designed and well-maintained, these particular residents showed a high degree of satisfaction at all floor levels.
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Author: Grady Eric Connell
Publication date: 1996
Title: The Design Practices of Architects in Relation to the Models of Design: Analysis-Synthesis and Conjecture-Analysis
Abstract: Architectural design is understood to operate within two models, Analysis-Synthesis (AS) and Conjecture-Analysis (CA) conventionally referred to as the rational and intuitive methods. Conceptually the models seem viable but in practice lack the richness and complexity associated with architectural design. This study examines the design processes of 12 men and women architects chosen from a variety of practices in nine locations. Ethnographic methods were used for data collection. Data were content analyzed comparing the processes of practicing architectural designers against the two models. Findings indicate that architectural design is more complex than the models AS and CA represent. Architectural design is more accurately represented the aspects of continuity, anticipation of unpredictability and explicit involvement of others as part of the process are taken into consideration.
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Author: Mary S. McCormick
Publication date: 1996
Title: How to Get There from Here: Way-Finding in Complex Environments
Abstract: This research compared environmental properties that influence way-finding-plan complexity, signage, vistas, and landmarks-to the observed, way-finding behavior of some 5,000 patients and visitors at a major health-care facility, in order to generate design guidelines for expansion. Observations of the way-finding behavior of patients and visitors were made at choice points where they had to decide which way to go, where plan complexity was high and signage was poor. An ANOVA data analysis showed that the presence of vistas and landmarks at choice points was associated with significantly less way-finding difficulty than, where vistas and landmarks were absent. A second ANOVA showed that way-finding difficulty decreased with the presence of appropriate environmental properties: 53.4% of participants showed way-finding difficulty when vistas and landmarks, were absent, 48%, when vistas were present, 38.5%, when landmarks, were present, and only 30.5% of participants showed way-finding difficulty when both vistas and landmarks were present; these results were all statistically significant. Unanticipated findings were that high traffic volume reduced observed way-finding difficulty greatly. Half of all patients and visitors parked in disadvantageous places and entered the wrong building entrances, through conflicts between signage and the perceptual characteristics of roads and building entrances. According to the neurosciences and environmental psychology, way finding combines orientation with navigation in consistent ways. A survey of some prehistoric and isolated societies revealed architectural forms associated with orientation and navigation. Concepts from phenomenology and Gibson's direct perception yielded a model of being in place and moving through space. Resulting design guidelines recommend a central trail connecting all the buildings indoors and out, to integrate the health-care facilities and organize the campus for future growth. Landmarks at nodes and vistas along links should be added to reduce plan complexity and guide patients and visitors to their destinations. Elevator stacks must become distinctive and visible from the trail. Way-finding design recommendations for the campus as a whole include distinctive site entrances separated by function, streams of traffic directed by destination, vistas and landmarks to guide approaching drivers, parking terraces near building entrances, and unique building entrances visible from site entrances.
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Author: Michael Dean Nobe
Publication date: 1996
Title: Decision Support for Real Estate Development Cost Estimating
Abstract: This research examines the theoretical underpinnings and associated advancements related to the built environment and decision support systems (DSS). Specifically for the built environment this includes the disciplines of real estate development, construction science and project management finance, statistics and economics, for decision support systems this includes management science and decision analysis, and computer science. The purpose of this research was to design, develop and evaluate a prototype development cost estimating decision support system for use in the pre- development planning stage of real estate development. Particular emphasis was placed on synthesis of each discipline's models and/or advancements which support design and development of a decision support system; derivation of real estate development cost; and evaluation of risk. The results of the design and development phases of this research are embodied in the Real Estate Development Decision Support (REDDS) system as documented in this dissertation. Following design and development of the system, it was tested on a group of real estate development and construction management students at Texas A&M University. It was hypothesized that such an interdisciplinary methodology, which utilizes a decision support system framework, would facilitate generation of consistent and timely analysis of real estate development cost and associated risk and elevate the confidence of the user in the decision making process. Test results indicate that the REDDS systems does significantly reduce conceptual cost estimating preparation time. Further it was determined that the REDDS system does not significantly change the confidence of the user in the decision making process. Finally, this study shows that use of the REDDS system provides a consistent and sophisticated framework for evaluating development cost and risk, which leads to less variation and more accurate estimates.
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Author: Julie S. Rogers
Publication date: 1996
Title: The Concept of Framing and Its Role in Teacher-Student Negotiations during Desk Critiques in the Architectural Design Studio
Abstract: This research investigates negotiation through the identification of frame categories evidenced in verbal communication in desk critique settings in the architectural design studio. The study provides an interpretative account of communicated frames and their relationship to the development of the architectural design project. The basic assumption of this research is that an understanding of the types of frames (or interpretative schemes) the teacher and the student are invoking, the content of their interpretations and the extent to which the interactants redefine or shift frames is critical to understanding negotiated order in the architectural design studio.
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Author: Karen Cordes Spence
Publication date: 1996
Title: Theorizing in Architecture: An Examination of the Texts of Frampton, Rossi, and Lang
Abstract: Recent discussions of the subject of theory in architecture often presuppose what is meant by the term "theory." As a result, the term has been used rather loosely and with a wide array of meanings. This study examines the subject of theory in order to begin an elucidation of what it means to theorize, framing the possibilities of this subject to allow a better understanding of its elements and characteristics. Such an elucidation aids the accessibility of theoretical investigations in the profession, provides a fundamental structure for the activity of theorizing and the construction of theorems, and discourages the postrationalization of connections between idea and form. The investigation begins by examining traditional definitions of the term theory." Theory" is defined as a clarification. It may be in the form of a doctrine or explanatory scheme. The activity of clarifying is distinguished from the clarification resultant recognizing a distinction between "theorizing" and theorem." From this beginning, a number of other characteristics are identified in theorizing. This elucidation of theorizing is then used in an examination of several recent texts that are commonly recognized to be a part of the subject of theory in architecture. Specifically, the writings of Kenneth Frampton, Aldo Rossi, and Jon Lang--selected because of the nature of their approaches--will be studied to evaluate their contents, noting strengths and weaknesses. These works will also be considered in terms of their correlation with the previously noted elements and characteristics of theorizing. Investigating selected writings provides an understanding of how theorizing functions in architecture as well as examines and tests the identified elements and characteristics of theorizing. The elucidation of theorizing, along with Frampton's critical theory, Rossi's typological and analogical approaches, and Lang's behavioral science, present a beginning for a deeper understanding of theorizing in architecture. Correlations and conflicts are identified to disclose the variety of perspectives that constitute the subject of theory in architecture.
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Author: Rami Farouk Daher
Publication date: 1996
Title: Towards a Comprehensive Approach for the Identification, Evaluation, and Management of Historical and Cultural Resources in Jordan: "Paradigm Shift in Conservation Ideology
Abstract: Research related to conservation of the natural and manmade environments is shifting towards a broader definition of the word "conservation." This new paradigm shift does not limit the domain of conservation to aesthetic preservation of cultural artifacts and historic monuments, or to a struggle for a better natural environment. The current approach to conservation looks upon the world as a global system, which encompasses both natural and built environments. Under this broader conception of the world, conservation can be best defined as the "dynamic management of change" in order to ensure the well being of humankind. Currently in Jordan research in the area of conservation is often limited to historical analysis and architectural documentation of historical sites. In addition, management of the cultural heritage is restricted to rescue and salvage archaeology and does not address the conservation of the more recent and diverse cultural heritage. The research adopted a multi-method approach through the incorporation of between method triangulation to increase the internal validity of the study. The first method used was an exploration in the contexts and dynamics of heritage conservation in Jordan. This exploration took the form of an expedition (traveling workshop) and consisted of a field reconnaissance-level survey of post-1700 AD historical and cultural resources public meetings and a one-day workshop, and a conservation questionnaire. The second method was a study of the evolution of conservation movements in different geographic and cultural contexts (United States, France, and Egypt). The main advantage of the multi-method approach was not the quantity of data it provided, but rather the data's diversity and the opportunities for comparison that this diversity afforded. The outcome of this research is to suggest a comprehensive-regional approach for the identification evaluation, and management of historical and cultural resources in Jordan; taking into consideration local culture values, dynamics, and context. This research goes beyond being an intellectual exercise or an advocacy to save monumental and appealing architecture; it is a rhetorical argument (a scientific, methodological, and historical argument), based on maximizing the voices of authority and understanding the key players in conservation in Jordan to build a broader understanding of Jordanian local, national and place identities.
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Author: Midori Kitagawa De Leon
Publication date: 1996
Title: Boolean operations on polygon meshes
Abstract: Geometric modeling studies how to construct and represent shapes of objects. The shape of a physical object can be measured and represented as a geometric model on the computer. The shape of a non-existing object can be designed and represented as a geometric model on the computer. Algorithms for Boolean operations construct complex models from simpler models. This research presents a simple, robust, and fast algorithm for Boolean operations on polygon meshes. The proposed algorithm systematically classifies the relationship of two intersecting polygons into four types and subdivides intersecting polygons by using one of three methods. Singular intersections are defined and a method which locally classifies polygons in singular intersections is documented. As well as 2-manifold objects, certain types non-2-manifold objects are acceptable as input. The robustness of the algorithm is graphically illustrated by resulting objects constructed by an implementation of the algorithm. The binary index list subdivision methods (BILS methods) presented here for geometric search are simple but powerful: the methods allow the Boolean operation algorithm to have computational time which is linear in the size of the input. The BILS search methods are described and experimental evidence is presented to show that the complexity of the algorithm is linear in the size of the input.
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Author: Rima Al Ajlouni
Publication date: 2005
Title: Development and Evaluation of a Digital Tool for Vertual Reconstruction of Historic Islamic Geometric Patterns
Abstract: For the purpose of cultural heritage preservation, the task of recording and reconstructing visually complicated architectural geometrical patterns is facing many practical challenges. Existing traditional technologies rely heavily on the subjective nature of our perceptual power in understanding its complexity and depicting its color differences. This study explores one possible solution, through utilizing digital techniques for reconstructing detailed historical Islamic geometric patterns. Its main hypothesis is that digital techniques offer many advantages over the human eye in terms of recognizing subtle differences in light and color. The objective of the study is to design, test and evaluate an automatic visual tool for identifying deteriorated or incomplete archaeological Islamic geometrical patterns captured in digital images, and then restoring them digitally, for the purpose of producing accurate 2D reconstructed metric models. An experimental approach is used to develop, test and evaluate the specialized software. The goal of the experiment is to analyze the output reconstructed patterns for the purpose of evaluating the digital tool in respect to reliability and structural accuracy, from the point of view of the researcher in the context of historic preservation. The research encapsulates two approaches within its methodology; Qualitative approach is evident in the process of program design, algorithm selection, and evaluation. Quantitative approach is manifested through using mathematical knowledge of pattern generation to interpret available data and to simulate the rest based on it. The reconstruction process involves induction, deduction and analogy. The proposed method was proven to be successful in capturing the accurate structural geometry of the deteriorated straight-lines patterns generated based on the octagon-square basic grid. This research also concluded that it is possible to apply the same conceptual method to reconstruct all two-dimensional Islamic geometric patterns. Moreover, the same methodology can be applied to reconstruct many other pattern systems. The conceptual framework proposed by this study can serve as a platform for developing professional softwares related to historic documentation. Future research should be directed more towards developing artificial intelligence and pattern recognition techniques that have the ability to supplement human power in accomplishing difficult tasks.
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Author: Sakkara Rasisuttha
Publication date: 2005
Title: An Inverstigation of Methods for Reducing the Use of Non-renewable Energy Rescources for Housing in Thailand
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to develop methods that reduce energy consumption in a residential building in a hot and humid climate region (Thailand) using efficient architectural building components and renewable energy (solar energy) to produce electricity, domestic hot water, and supplemental cooling by night sky radiation. Improving the architectural building components, including building materials, is an option to reduce energy consumption in a building. Using renewable energy sources is another option to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy. In residential buildings, solar energy has been utilized for space heating and domestic hot water using active solar collector systems and for generating electricity using photovoltaic (PV) systems. One photovoltaic system, the hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) collector system, has been developed by several researchers over the last 20 years. The hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) collector system is a combination photovoltaic (for producing electricity) and solar thermal collector (for producing hot water).Theoretical and experimental studies of this collector have highlighted the advantages of the hybrid PV-T collector system over separate systems of PV and solar collector in term of system efficiency and economics. Unfortunately, very little experimental data exists that demonstrates the advantages of a combined system. Therefore, one of the objectives of this study conducted was an experimental study of this system as an auxiliary energy source for a residential building. Night sky radiation has also been studied as a cooling strategy. However, no attempt so far could be found to integrate it to a hybrid PV-T collector system. The night sky radiation strategy could be operated with the hybrid PV/T collector system by using existing resources that are already present in the solar system. The integration of the night sky radiation into the hybrid PV-Tcollector system should yield more productivity of the system than the operation of the Hybrid PVTsystem alone. The research methods used in this work included instrumentation of a case-study house in Thailand, an experimental PV-T collector system, and a calibrated building thermal simulation. A typical contemporary Thai residential building was selected as a case-study house. Its energy use and local weather data were measured and analyzed. Published energy use of Thai residential buildings was also analyzed as well to determine average energy consumption. A calibrated computer model of the case-study building was constructed using the DOE-2 program. A field experiment of the thermal PV system was constructed to test its ability to simultaneously produce electricity and hot water in the daytime, and shed heat at night as a cooling strategy (i.e., night sky radiation). The resultant electricity and hot water produced by the hybrid PV-T collector system helped to reduce the use of non-renewable energy. The cooling produced by the night sky radiation also has to potential to reduce the cooling load. The evaluation of the case-study house and results of the field experiment helped to quantify the potential reduction of energy use in Thai residential buildings.This research provided the following benefits: 1) experimental results of a hybrid PV-Tsolar collector system that demonstrates its performance compared to typical system of separate photovoltaic and solar collector, 2) results of night sky radiation experiments using a photovoltaic panel as a radiator to demonstrate the performance of this new space cooling strategy, and 3) useful data from the case-study house simulation results and guidelines to assist others in transferring the results to other projects.
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Author: Jin Gyu Park  
Publication date: 2007 
Title: Environmental Color for Pediatric Patient Room Design 
Abstract: Color has a large impact on our psychological and physiological responses. This study examines the value of color as a component in a healing environment for pediatric patient rooms by measuring color preferences among healthy children, pediatric patients, and design professionals. Environmental satisfaction is a significant mediator between the physical environment and children's health. Previous color preference studies have typically been done with small color chips or papers, which are very different from seeing a color applied on wall surfaces. A simulation method allowed for investigating the value of color in real contexts and controlling confounding variables. The findings of this study demonstrated that blue and green are the most preferred, and white the least preferred color, by both children and design professionals. Children's gender differences were found in that boys prefer red and purple less than girls. Pediatric patients reported lower preference scores for yellow than did healthy children. These findings lead to color application guidelines for designers to understand color more and eventually to create better environments for children and their families.